The rarefaction of fossil energy resources and climate change are favoring the replacement of fossil carbon by renewable carbon. In this context, lignocellulosic biomass is a promising resource, as long as it can be used in a sustainable way. INRA, coordinator of the European project BIOCORE, in association with two industrial partners of this project CIMV S.A. (Levallois Perret, France) and DSM Bio-based Products & Services B.V. (Delft, The Netherlands), announces the successful pilot scale production of 2nd generation bioethanol from wheat straw. This achievement demonstrates the feasibility of 2nd generation bioethanol production and ultimately opens the way towards the production of polymers, such as PVC, from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. In general terms, the technologies that are being developed in BIOCORE favour the use of non-food resources, these being either non-food residues of food crops or woody biomass.